In times like today's, where the competition between companies is so accentuated, it is essential to carefully make the basic technical choices so to obtain the best possible performances from the terroir em>.
Characterization of soils and choice of plant material best suited to the specific situation are objectives that are best achieved thanks to our technologies.
In fact, in addition to describing a vegetative expression useful for the management of an already existing vineyard, the remote sensing can also be a formidable tool to define better area or territorial zoning . The multispectral image of the bare ground allows to identify with high degree of reliability the presence of humidity and the definition of spatial areas with homogeneous chemical-physical characteristics, allowing the geopedologist to perform a number of essays extremely limited compared to traditional procedures. This is reflected in a great economic benefit and in a more precise cartographic identification of homogeneous zones.
The geopedology has in fact assumed a role of undisputed importance as a methodology of research and study aimed at identifying and describing those pedogenetic conditions that characterize and qualify the soils and the sites in which they develop, insertable in a geological-territorial context definable through the creation of geopedological maps.
The application of pedology in precision viticulture and in other disciplines with which it interfaces through a relationship between environment and territory stems from the need to know, to define them, the qualities or even limitations of a territory.
A geopedological study of a territory is to be considered as the starting point of a professional and interdisciplinary work, where the geological and agronomic knowledge are aimed at the protection and enhancement of an existing heritage or even research and to the development of a new territory of a developing territory.
The drafting of a pedological paper takes on particular results as it involves applying the pedology to a specific context such as wine growing and wine producing sector where more than in other sectors we are called to provide concrete and immediate answers: the requirement to be respected first of all is to draw up a map that is not representative of a simple sampling of land, but can provide concrete advice, for example on how and where to carry out agrarian arrangements respecting the soil and the constraints landscape and hydrogeological , how and where to perform drainage also according to the costs per linear meter of excavation, how and if it is better to perform earth movements and above all with which operating machines.
In summary, in a geopedological map, data are elaborated for the enhancement of the qualities of a territory, also because the preparation of this map presupposes the study of a soil that presents its typicality that must first be recognized and then safeguarded and enhanced.
Therefore we speak of "empirical pedology" as an application model to precision viticulture for the research of those production sites that for their qualities or "limitations" are the most suitable to express the potential of a vineyard.
The aim is to provide the client with a useful paper that is the final scientific result of an interdisciplinary methodology, accompanied by a legend to be interpreted today, as an explanatory attachment that can also provide knowledge of the limitations that must no longer be understood as decreases in the economic value of a land, but as an indication for the agronomist technician of certain intrinsic qualities of a soil to manage them better and to enhance them: all this not at the expense, but to increase the company's assets.
The method to be applied follows defined scientific constants; the variables are instead the result of professional experience and play the primary role because the object of the survey is the soil, which is an element, or rather the ongoing result of the interpenetration of physical, chemical, and organic elements that can not be standardized.
Only by the perfect balance of these procedures is the premise for the research and application of geopedology in the various fields of precision farming strong>.
Francesco Lizio Bruno
Geologist-Pedologist, freelance professional, Montepulciano (Siena) em>